Cataracts are a leading cause of impaired vision for Australians aged over 55

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The OKKO Story

The OKKO Eye Specialist Centre team is highly experienced in the diagnosis, treatment and management of a comprehensive range of eye conditions, including cataracts, glaucoma and macular diseases

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Useful information about cataracts

Cataract incidence / prevalence

Age-related cataract is one of the leading causes of impaired vision for Australians aged over 55.

What is a cataract?

When the eye’s naturally clear lens becomes cloudy or hazy, it is called a cataract. This clouding means that images on the back of the eye are out of focus and degraded, which leads to impaired or blurred vision.

Cataract causes

Usually the result of the natural ageing process. The cataract forms slowly and will affect the majority of people at some point after the age of 55. However, sometimes may be present at birth. Others face risks of cataract as a result of physical injury or are drug-induced.

Symptoms may include:

  • Deterioration of far or near vision (or both)
  • Light sensitivity
  • Decreased night vision
  • Increased glare sensitivity (especially at night)
  • Colours appearing less vivid
  • Dull vision or a loss of contrast sensitivity
  • Double vision or halos around lights
  • Increased short-sightedness (myopia)

Cataract diagnosis and examination

Under the guidance of our expert cataract surgeons, the OKKO team will diagnose and treat your cataracts, ensuring the best possible eye health and vision outcome.

Before you see a doctor, we will perform several tests and scans. You will have the opportunity to ask any questions you may have. Your doctor will then look at your eyes through a type of microscope called a slit lamp. They will be able to determine whether you have a cataract and how it may be impacting your day to day life. We may use dilating drops that will make your vision blurry for up to 3 hours.

Cataract surgery

At OKKO, we offer standard cataract surgery, lifestyle cataract surgery, and as of Spring 2021, laser cataract surgery. The right choice for you depends on your aims and expectations.

The only way to treat a cataract is to surgically remove it and implant an artificial lens in its place. Cataract surgery is the most commonly performed surgery in Australia. The procedure typically takes less than half an hour and does not require an overnight stay.

The implanted lens can give a range of vision, from distance to close. We will calculate the lens power using scans performed at your initial consult for surgery.

At this consultation, clinical staff will discuss the available options and work with you to decide what vision range will work best.

Types of lenses

Lens implants are permanent, and ordinarily do not need to be replaced. They will last for the rest of your life. Many patients experience improved vision within a few days of surgery. You may still need to wear reading or prescription glasses after surgery, and your clinical team will discuss this with you before the procedure.

What to expect during surgery

Cataract surgery is performed in a Day Surgery using local anaesthetic eye drops and twilight sedation. A tiny incision is made in the cornea (the clear membrane on the surface of the eye) and a fine ultrasound instrument is then inserted. The ultrasound energy is used to gently emulsify the lens, and this is then carefully removed under microscopic guidance.

Once the surgeon has completely removed the cataract, they will implant the artificial lens (intraocular lens, or IOL) using a special lens injector. In the majority of cases, the IOL will sit within the natural ‘bag’ that held the original crystalline lens. Sutures are not usually required.

The surgery takes less than half an hour. Generally, the total time at the hospital is approximately three hours. Once the operation is complete, we will place a clear shield over the eye which stays on for four hours post-surgery. After this, you will need to commence postoperative eye drops. Each eye is treated separately on different days. Driving is not permitted for 24 hours following surgery due to the twilight sedation.

What to expect after surgery

At OKKO, we pride ourselves on a personalised approach to pre and post-surgical care, and on ensuring you feel comfortable and empowered during all stages of your treatment.

After cataract surgery, you will typically attend several follow-up appointments. The first will be the day after your treatment so that we can assess your progress and answer any questions you may have.

After treatment, it is normal to feel mild discomfort, irritation or a stingy sensation. If you experience these symptoms, you can take paracetamol (such as Panadol, Panamax, Dymadon or Panadeine). Mild mucous, a small amount of bloody discharge and watering of the eye, is also considered normal.

It is also quite normal to be sensitive to light after surgery. We will give you a pair of dark glasses to aid with this if necessary. It is important after cataract surgery to not rub the eye. For two weeks following surgery, it is also advised to avoid:

  • Engaging in strenuous activity/exercise, gardening or heavy lifting (greater than 10kg)
  • Wearing makeup directly on the eyelids
  • Swimming
  • Allowing water/shampoo to come into direct contact with the eye

Cataract surgery is one of the safest and most commonly performed surgeries in Australia. Generally, your recovery will be short and uneventful, and the OKKO clinical team will keep you informed at every stage.

How soon does vision improve after cataract surgery?

Vision is often improving the day after cataract surgery although it can sometimes take a few days. Patients experience maximum improvement once new glasses are prescribed, about 6 weeks after cataract surgery. You must be sure to use any medications we prescribe to ensure the best possible long-term results.

What are the long-term effects of cataract surgery?

Lens implants are permanent, and ordinarily do not need to be replaced. They are good for the life of the patient.

The capsule or outer lining wall of the cataract is left in place during surgery to hold the replacement implant. Clouding of this lining may occur months or years after cataract surgery. In this case, an office procedure using a YAG laser can easily and painlessly restore normal vision.

Cataract FAQs

What is a cataract?

A cataract is a clouding or loss of clarity of the natural crystalline lens inside the eye. The crystalline lens is normally a clear structure that focuses light onto the back of the eye (retina), much like a camera. When the lens becomes cloudy, images on the back of the eye are out of focus and dull, leading to vision problems.

What are the symptoms of a cataract?

Early cataracts may not affect the vision or only affect the vision minimally. In these instances, you may not need treatment; however, cataracts will likely progress. Moderate and advanced cataracts can cause symptoms such as:

  • Blurry or hazy vision (often likened to a dirty spectacle lens)
  • Difficulty driving, reading and recognising faces
  • Need for more light when reading (reduced light transmission)
  • Double vision in one eye
  • Increasing short-sightedness
  • Increased glare sensitivity due to internal scatter of light
  • Difficulties with night driving (halos and glare)
  • Reduced contrast sensitivity
  • Altered colour perception
  • Reduced brightness/intensity of colours

Cataract progression is generally very gradual, but symptoms may become apparent quite quickly in some people. Spectacle correction may help improve vision in early cataract but not in moderate and advanced cases.

What are the different types of cataract?

Nuclear sclerotic cataracts are the most common type of cataract. It describes an overall clouding in the central part (the nucleus) of the crystalline lens. Nuclear cataracts are most commonly associated with increased short-sightedness, altered colour perception and blurry vision.

Cortical cataracts cause spoke-like opacities to form in the periphery of the crystalline lens. Symptoms frequently include increased glare sensitivity and difficulties with night driving.

Posterior Subcapsular cataracts cause a plaque-like opacity to grow on the back of the crystalline lens. They will cause increased glare sensitivity and blurry vision. This form of cataract is sometimes associated with previous steroid use.

How are cataracts detected?

Eye examination

We will measure your visual acuity on a letter chart. We will also use a slit lamp microscope to classify and grade the cataract. Sometimes, we use dilating drops to enlarge the pupil allowing us to examine the back of the eye thoroughly and to exclude the possibility of other eye diseases. These drops will blur your vision for 2-3 hours, and so we recommend that you do not drive on the day of your eye exam.

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) allows non-invasive imaging of the macula in a cross-sectional view. It will screen for any macular pathology which could also be responsible for reducing vision (e.g. age-related macular degeneration).
We recommend that everyone has an OCT before cataract surgery to ensure that we have evaluated the health of the eye thoroughly. We may not detect some macular problems in an eye examination alone, particularly in the presence of a dense cataract.

What other complications can arise from cataract?

In certain people, the growth of a cataract can make them prone to primary angle-closure glaucoma. This is where the drainage channel in the front of the eye (trabecular meshwork) is gradually narrowed by the increasing size of the crystalline lens.

Eventually, the drainage channel can become completely blocked, resulting in a rapid increase in the pressure within the eyeball and a painful red eye. Long-sighted patients are more likely to be at risk of angle-closure glaucoma. Your eye specialist will be able to assess you to see if you are at risk of primary angle-closure glaucoma and whether you would benefit from cataract extraction or other treatment to prevent this serious condition.

How are cataracts treated?

The only way to treat a cataract is to remove it surgically. Currently, the most common type of cataract surgery is known as micro-incision phacoemulsification cataract extraction. OKKO performs this procedure with local anaesthetic (eye drops) and sedation.

We make a small (2-2.5mm) self-sealing incision on the side of the cornea, the clear membrane on the surface of the eye. Then, the surgeon inserts a fine ultrasound (phacoemsulfication, or phaco) probe. Vibrations from the tip of the phaco probe fragment and emulsify the cataract into a pulp. We then carefully remove these fragments of cataract under microscopic guidance.

Next, we insert a preselected biocompatible intraocular lens into your eye, replacing the crystalline lens. The implant is rolled up in a special lens injector and gently guided into place by your surgeon. In the majority of cases, the IOL will sit within the natural bag that originally held the crystalline lens (the capsule), and sutures are not usually required to position the IOL.

Cataract treatment FAQs

How is the power of the intraocular lens calculated?

Because an IOL replaces your natural crystalline lens, it is possible in most cases to choose your remaining prescription after your cataract surgery. To do this, we perform a series of scans at your initial visit, which gives precise measurements of your eye. These include measurements of the length of the eye and the curvature of the front of the eye.

We take these values and insert them into a mathematical regression formula which calculates the IOL power according to your needs. There is an 85 – 90% chance of achieving the desired outcome.

It is important to understand that no artificial intraocular lens can completely replicate the vision that you may have experienced in early adult life. We also cannot guarantee that the lens will achieve the exact focus you and your cataract surgeon aim for.

Your ophthalmologist will discuss your intraocular lens options with you as well the target focus for your eye after surgery. By working through this process, the best implant and focus target that most suits your needs is likely to be achieved. Some possibilities include, but are not limited to:

  1. Distance vision for both eyes – this is where we plan for no or minimal distance prescription, however, correction is expected to be required for intermediate and near vision.
  2. Blended monovision – This describes a mix of distance and intermediate/near vision. We do this by correcting the dominant eye to improve distance vision and the non-dominant eye for intermediate vision. The brain generally adapts naturally and quickly to this configuration. You may still require spectacles for reading (especially in dim light, with small writing and for long periods) and night-driving.
  3. Full monovision – This describes a mix of distance and near vision. We correct the dominant eye to improve your distance vision and correct the non-dominant eye to improve near vision. There is a greater difference in the prescription between the two eyes compared to blended monovision. Adapting to full monovision can take longer. You may still require spectacles for intermediate vision and other activities.
  4. Multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) – These contain concentric ‘rings’ or separate segments that enable the lens to provide distance and near vision to reduce your dependency on glasses. These lenses will give you good postoperative distance, and near vision, however, you may require spectacles for long periods of intermediate vision tasks (e.g. computer). Multifocal IOLs can also cause significant halos around lights at night time.

What can I expect during and after cataract surgery?

We perform cataract surgery using intravenous sedation, and local anaesthetic eye drops to ensure the procedure is pain-free. You will have little or no awareness of your surroundings during the procedure. For the majority of patients, the sedative effect will wear off within 15 to 20 minutes following surgery. You will not be able to drive for 24 hours after your procedure due to the residual effects of sedation such as drowsiness and decreased reaction times. We, therefore, recommend you have a carer to escort you home and avoid public transport for the same reason.

After surgery

There is a 98 – 99% likelihood of undergoing cataract surgery without complications that may permanently affect your best possible vision.

There is little to no awareness of your surroundings during the surgery, and there is no pain involved at any time. You may experience mild grittiness and dry eye symptoms following surgery, and this can last for a few weeks and in some cases several months. Some people may experience fleeting discomfort related to dryness of the eye. These symptoms are usually manageable with lubricating eye drops. If we see you have dry eyes at your preoperative assessment, your surgeon may recommend you commence use of artificial tears before surgery.

Your vision may be blurred to some degree on the day following surgery but will improve over the next first few days. Upgrades in spectacles can generally be made approximately one month to 6 weeks after surgery.

Postoperatively, there are no significant restrictions on lifestyle. In the first week, we advise you to defer any activities which could introduce foreign matter into the eye (this includes avoiding getting water in your eye when showering). We will give you a clear shield (for use when sleeping) and dark safety glasses to protect the eye.

What causes a cataract?

The majority of cataracts develop as a result of natural age-related changes in the eye. Oxygen-related damage to the proteins in the natural lens accumulates throughout life. From about 40 years of age, this causes proteins within the crystalline lens to discolour, and gradually the lens loses its clarity.

There are other factors that accelerate the growth of cataracts including:

  • Excessive exposure to UV and other types of radiation
  • Use of certain medications (e.g. corticosteroids)
  • Previous blunt/penetrating ocular trauma, surgery or disease
  • Systemic disease (e.g. diabetes and other metabolic disorders)
  • Smoking
  • Genetics and congenital disorders

What happens if the desired focus is not achieved?

There is a degree of variability in achieving the desired prescription following cataract surgery, between both individuals and eyes. This is because we calculate the IOL implant using a regression equation, and it is possible that your eye may not conform exactly to this mathematical model.

In the majority of cases, even if the focus is not exactly as predicted, it is likely to be very close to the expected result, and the quality of your vision should still be very good. Wearing glasses for certain activities may be necessary. In cases where the desired postoperative prescription is significantly different from the expected result, your surgeon may discuss with you the possibility of fine-tuning your vision with an additional procedure. Secondary treatment options include inserting a secondary (piggy-back) IOL or performing laser refractive surgery.

Will insurance cover the cost of cataract surgery?

Medicare and health insurance usually cover cataract surgery.

Different types of cataract surgery for different needs

Together, we’ll assess your candidacy and recommend the best solution to suit your needs and lifestyle
  Standard Cataract Surgery Lifestyle Cataract Surgery Laser Cataract Surgery
Removal of Cataract
Method of Removal
  • Manual Incision
  • Phacoemulsification
  • Manual Incision
  • Phacoemulsification
  • Laser-assisted cataract removal
  • Phacoemulsification
Reduced dependence on glasses for distance and mid-range vision
Reduced dependence on glasses for all activities
Who is this suitable for? No concerns with wearing glasses after surgery Would prefer to use glasses only for certain tasks Would like to reduce dependence on glasses for all tasks
Precise Enhancement Procedures Not required (vision after surgery can be corrected with glasses) Occasionally required if there is greater-than-expected dependence on glasses* Can be performed and is included in original surgery costs
Learn More
Learn More
Learn More

*Enhancement procedures such as laser refractive surgery or piggyback IOL insertion are at cost and not covered by Medicare or health funds

We’ve helped thousands of Queenlanders rejuvenate their eyes

“Very friendly and professional staff. Dr Russell is extremely informative and has a really positive presence. The doctor and all of the staff ensured all my questions were answered fully. I left the surgery feeling as if I’d been really well cared for.”

Suzanne Cooper

“The staff are all friendly and helpful.”

Alana Jenkins

“Dr Russell and the entire team should be commended for their genuine care and personal attention. They made every possible effort to explain and clarify the treatment required and made sure I was comfortable through the consultation treatment.”

Xerxes Meher

“Dr Russell is my hubby’s specialist for years. We love him. Such a kind person and always spends time to explain everything.”

Zita Farczadi Kershaw

“Many thanks for your care and skill and a big thanks to all your staff for their friendly care and professionalism shown each time I have visited.”

Henry Ellison

“My wife came to see Dr Russell today and we wanted to say thank you to all the staff for the kind and professional service. We are also extremely grateful for Dr Russell’s generosity when it came to us paying for the consultation. We wanted to reach out and say thank you so much!”

Troy and Liana Todd

We have replaced the images of real patients who provided these testimonials to protect their privacy.

Who can we help?

If you can see yourself below, we can help you at our Brisbane eye clinic

Treat your

Glasses are ineffective once cloudy vision starts getting in the way. Activities that you once enjoyed, like reading and walking can become a tiring challenge.

Fortunately, with cataract surgery, we can easily remove those grey clouds from your vision so that you can resume life as usual with your favourite pair of specs.

Learn more about standard cataract surgery.

Treat cataracts AND reduce your dependence on glasses

Being forced down the route of cataract surgery isn’t great. Still, if you’ve ever fancied reducing your need for glasses, it could be a blessing in disguise. Lifestyle and laser cataract surgery can remove your cataracts and give you a visual enhancement tailored to your unique needs and lifestyle.

Learn more about lifestyle cataract surgery and laser cataract surgery.

Halt the progression of your glaucoma

Having a sight-threatening condition like glaucoma can be scary. Early detection and treatment are often critical for preserving a good level of vision, but knowing the treatment options can be confusing.

We understand the severity of the situation and are here to guide you towards the right treatment for your unique eyes.

Learn more about glaucoma treatment.

Find help for another eye problem

Any issue with your eyes can be exhausting and stop you from engaging in activities you enjoy.

Fortunately, we’ve built an impressive reputation for the treatment of many complex eye conditions including keratoconus, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) and ocular surface disease.

Learn more about our full range of eye treatments.

How to get help at OKKO Eye Specialist Centre

Get the eye treatment you need in 3 easy steps

Step 1 – Reach out

Give us a call on: 3725 0222 and we’ll guide you towards an initial consultation.

Book a consultation

Step 2 – We’ll meet

During your initial consultation, we will take a detailed medical history and examination to make an accurate assessment of the issue at hand.

Step 3 – Your vitality restored

We will treat you at one of our state-of-the-art Brisbane eye clinic facilities, giving you the optimism and confidence to re-engage with life. 

Take our quick suitability quiz to discover which type of cataract surgery is right for you

When it comes to cataract surgery, there is a world of choice available that most people sadly miss. Avoid disappointment and discover which option is best suited to your needs and lifestyle in just a few minutes



We’ve got you covered, OKKO is pleased to work with all the insurers below:
  • Australian Unity

  • ACA

  • CBHS

  • CBHS Corporate

  • CDH

  • CUA Health

  • Doctors’ Health

  • Emergency Services


  • GU Health Corporate

  • HBF

  • HCI

  • Health Partners


  • HIF

  • Latrobe

  • MDHF

  • MO Health

  • Navy Health

  • Nurses and Midwives

  • Onemedifund

  • Peoplecare

  • Phoenix

  • Police

  • QCH

  • Reserve Bank

  • RT Health Fund

  • St Lukes

  • Teachers Health

  • Teachers Health

  • Westfund


We’ve got you covered! We are registered with all the major insurers in Australia.
see the full insurer list

Links to authoritative resources on lifestyle cataract surgery

You use the lens of your eye every day, for everything from reading to driving to bird watching. With age, the proteins inside your lens can clump together turning the lens from clear to cloudy. Certain behaviors can put you at a higher risk for getting a cataract. Click here for more information.

A cataract is a cloudy area in the lens of your eye. Cataracts are very common as you get older. In fact, more than half of all Americans age 80 or older either have cataracts or have had surgery to get rid of cataracts. Click here to read more.

If you have a cataract, your lens has become cloudy, like the bottom lens in the illustration. It is like looking through a foggy or dusty car windshield. Things look blurry, hazy or less colorful with a cataract. Click here to read more.

Our Brisbane eye specialists

We are dedicated to providing you with the best possible eye health and vision outcomes

Dr Nick Toalster, MBChB, FRANZCO

Specialist ophthalmic surgeon

I am an ophthalmologist with advanced training in cataract, corneal and glaucoma microsurgeries. As both an optometrist and an ophthalmologist, I am particularly well placed to lead the emerging field of eye disease management.

More about Dr Toalster

Dr. Matthew Russell, MBChB, FRANZCO

Brisbane Eye Surgeon

I am a specialist ophthalmic micro surgeon, internationally trained retinal surgeon, medical retinal diseases specialist and cataract surgeon. With a career that spans over 15 years, I have mastered the ability to achieve the most precise results that help patients regain their confidence and youthful energy. 

More about Dr Russell


Specialist ophthalmic surgeon

I am a specialist in glaucoma, cornea & external diseases and cataract surgery. I am passionate about assisting my patients to achieve their full visual potential. I feel extremely privileged to have the opportunity to restore sight and to improve people’s quality of life.

More about Dr Ku